Harvard Medical School Faculty - Summary of Disorders
81 Published Research Papers - Details Below
Obesity Paper is
Reference #15, below: 
The following is a published summary from the Faculty at Harvard Medical School and a nonprofit group, Natural Standards. The research refers to the safe use of transdermal (through the skin), non invasive, electrical stimulation. 
This technology has advanced significantly over the past 10 years. The use of multiple frequencies and a variety of specific wave forms have resulted in a wide range of results:
Selected Scientific Studies: Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation
Natural Standard has reviewed all of the currently available medical literature to prepare the professional monograph from which this version was created.
Some of the more recent studies are listed below:
  1. Abell TL, Van Cutsem E, Abrahamsson H, et al. Gastric electrical stimulation in intractable symptomatic gastroparesis. Digestion 2002;66(4):204-212.
  2. Allais G, De Lorenzo C, Quirico PE, et al. Non-pharmacological approaches to chronic headaches: transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, lasertherapy and acupuncture in transformed migraine treatment. Neurol Sci 2003;May, 24(Suppl 2):138-142.
  3. Al-Smadi J, Warke K, Wilson, et al. A pilot investigation of the hypoalgesic effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation upon low back pain in people with multiple sclerosis. Clin Rehabil 2003;17(7):742-749.
  4. Alvarez-Arenal A, Junquera LM, Fernandez JP, et al. Effect of occlusal splint and transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation on the signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in patients with bruxism. J Oral Rehabil 2002;Sep, 29(9):858-863.
  5. Amarenco G, Ismael SS, Even-Schneider A, et al. Urodynamic effect of acute transcutaneous posterior tibial nerve stimulation in overactive bladder. J Urol 2003;Jun, 169(6):2210-2215.
  6. Anderson SI, Whatling P, Hudlicka O, et al. Chronic transcutaneous electrical stimulation of calf muscles improves functional capacity without inducing systemic inflammation in claudicants. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2004;27(2):201-209.
  7. Arai YC, Kato N, Matsura M, et al. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation at the PC-5 and PC-6 acupoints reduced the severity of hypotension after spinal anaesthesia in patients undergoing Caesarean section. Br J Anaesth 2008;Jan, 100(1):78-81.
  8. Avraham F, Aviv S, Ya'akobi P, et al. The efficacy of treatment of different intervention programs for patellofemoral pain syndrome: a single blinded randomized clinical trial. Pilot study. ScientificWorldJournal 2007;Aug 24, 7:1256-1262.
  9. Bloodworth DM, Nguyen BN, Garver W, et al. Comparison of stochastic vs. conventional transcutaneous electrical stimulation for pain modulation in patients with electromyographically documented radiculopathy. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2004;83(8):584-5591.
  10. Bodofsky E. Treating carpal tunnel syndrome with lasers and TENS. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2003;83(12):1806-1807.
  11. Bourjeily-Habr G, Rochester CL, Alermo F, et al. Randomised controlled trial of transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation of the lower extremities in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax 2002;Dec, 57(12):1045-1049.
  12. Breit R, Van der Wall H. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for postoperative pain relief after total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty 2004;19(1):45-48.
  13. Brosseau L, Milne S, Robinson V, et al. Efficacy of the transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for the treatment of chronic low back pain: a meta-analysis. Spine 2003;27(6):596-603.
  14. Burssens P, Forsyth R, Steyaert A, et al. Influence of burst TENS stimulation on the healing of Achilles tendon suture in man. Acta Ortho Belg 2003;69(6):528-532.
  15. Cabioglu MT, Ergene N, Tan U. Electroacupuncture treatment of obesity with psychological symptoms. Int J Neurosci 2007;May, 117(5):579-590.
  16. Campbell TS, Ditto B. Exaggeration of blood pressure-related hypoalgesia and reduction of blood pressure with low frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. Psychophysiology 2002;Jul, 39(4):473-481.
  17. Carroll D, Moore RA, McQuay HJ, et al. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for chronic pain (Cochrane Review). Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews 2001;4.
  18. Cheing GL, Hui-Chan CW, Chan KM. Does four weeks of TENS and/or isometric exercise produce cumulative reduction of osteoarthritic knee pain? Clin Rehabil 2003;16(7):749-760.
  19. Cheing GL, Hui-Chan CW. Would the addition of TENS to exercise training produce better physical performance outcomes in people with knee osteoarthritis than either interventioin alone. Clin Rehabil 2004;18(5):487-497.
  20. Cheing GL, Tsui AY, Lo SK, et al. Optimal stimulation duration of tens in the management of osteoarthritic knee pain. J Rehabil Med 2003;Mar, 35(2):62-68.
  21. Chesterton LS, Barlas P, Foster NE, et al. Sensory stimulation (TENS): effects of parameter manipulation on mechanical pain thresholds in healthy human subjects. Pain 2002;Sep, 99(1-2):253-262.
  22. Chesterton LS, Foster NE, Wright CC, et al. Effects of TENS frequency, intensity and stimulation site parameter manipulation on pressure pain thresholds in healthy human subjects. Pain 2003;106(1-2):73-80.
  23. Cheung LC, Jones AY. Effect of Acu-TENS on recovery heart rate after treadmill running exercise in subjects with normal health. Complement Ther Med 2007;Jun, 15(2):109-114.
  24. Coloma M, White PF, Ogunnaike BO, et al. Comparison of acustimulation and ondansetron for the treatment of established postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anesthesiology 2002;Dec, 97(6):1387-1392.
  25. Cramp FL, McCullough GR, Lowe AS, et al. Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation: the effect of intensity on local and distal cutaneous blood flow and skin temperature in healthy subjects. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;Jan, 83(1):5-9.
  26. Crevenna R, Posch M, Sochor A, et al. Optimizing electrotherapy: a comparative study of 3 different currents [Article in German]. Wien Klin Wochenschr 2002;Jun 14, 114(10-11):400-404.
  27. De Angelis C, Perrone G, Santoro G, et al. Suppression of pelvic pain during hysteroscopy with a transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation device. Fertil Steril 2003;Jun, 79(6):1422-1427.
  28. de Tommaso M, Fiore P, Camporeale A, et al. High and low frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation inhibits nociceptive responses induced by CO2 laser stimulation in humans. Neurosci Lett 2003;May 15, 342(1-2):17-20.
  29. Fagade OO, Obilade TO. Therapeutic effect of TENS on post-IMF trismus and pain. Afr J Med Med Sci 2003;32(4):391-394.
  30. Fehlings DL, Kirsch S, McComas A, et al. Evaluation of therapeutic electrical stimulation to improve muscle strength and function in children with types II/III spinal muscular atrophy. Dev Med Child Neurol 2002;Nov, 44(11):741-744.
  31. Forst T, Nguyen M, Forst S. Impact of low frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on symptomatic diabetic neuropathy using a new Salutaris device. Diabetes Nutr Metab 2004;17(3):163-168.
  32. Guo Y, Shi X, Uchiyama H, et al. A study on the rehabilitation of cognitive function and short-term memory in patients with Alzheimer's disease using transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. Front Med Biol Eng 2002;11(4):237-247.
  33. Hardy SG, Spaulding TB, Liu H, et al. The effect of transcutaneous electrical stimulation on spinal motor neuron excitability in people without known neuromuscular diseases: the roles of stimulus intensity and location. Phys Ther 2002;Apr, 82(4):354-363. Erratum in: Phys Ther 2002;May, 82(5):527.
  34. Herraiz C, Toledano A, Diges I. Trans-electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for somatic tinnitus. Prog Brain Res 2007;166:389-394.
  35. Hettrick HH, O'Brien K, Laznick H, et al. Effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for the management of burn pruritus: a pilot study. J Burn Care Rehabil 2004;25(3):236-240.
  36. Hou CR, Tsai LC, Cheng KF, et al. Immediate effects of various physical therapeutic modalities on cervical myofascial pain and trigger-point sensitivity. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;Oct, 83(10):1406-1414.
  37. Hsieh RL, Lee WC. One-shot percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation vs. transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for low back pain: comparison of therapeutic effects. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2003;81(11):838-843.
  38. Hsieh RL, Wang LY, Lee WC. Additional therapeutic effects of electroacupuncture in conjunction with conventional rehabilitation for patients with first-ever ischaemic stroke. J Rehabil Med 2007;Apr, 39(3):205-211.
  39. Huang LP, Zhou S, Lu Z, et al. Bilateral effect of unilateral electroacupuncture on muscle strength. J Altern Complement Med 2007;Jun, 13(5):539-546.
  40. Johansson BB, Haker E, von Arbin M, et al. Acupuncture and transcutaneous nerve stimulation in stroke rehabilitation: a randomized, controlled trial. Stroke 2001;32(3):707-713.
  41. Johnson CA, Wood DE, Swain ID, et al. A pilot study to investigate the combined use of botulinum neurotoxin type a and functional electrical stimulation, with physiotherapy, in the treatment of spastic dropped foot in subacute stroke. Artif Organs 2002;Mar, 26(3):263-266.
  42. Johnson M, Martinson M. Efficacy of electrical nerve stimulation for chronic musculoskeletal pain: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Pain 2007;Jul, 130(1-2):157-165. Epub 2007;Mar 23.
  43. Jonsdottir S, Bouma A, Sergeant JA, et al. Effects of transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TENS) on cognition, behavior, and the rest-activity rhythm in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, combined type. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2004;18(4):212-221.
  44. Koke AJ, Schouten JS, Lamerichs-Geelen MJ, et al. Pain reducing effect of three types of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in patients with chronic pain: a randomized crossover trial. Pain 2004;108(1-2):36-42.
  45. Law PP, Cheing GL. Optimal stimulation frequency of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on people with knee osteoarthritis. J Rehabil Med 2004;36 (5):220-225.
  46. Luijpen MW, Swaab DF, Sergeant JA, et al. Effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on self-efficacy and mood in elderly with mild cognitive impairment. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2004;18(3):166-175.
  47. Miller L, Mattison P, Paul L, Wood L. The effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on spasticity in multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler 2007;May, 13(4):527-533. Epub 2007;Jan 29.
  48. Milne S, Welch V, Brosseau L, et al. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for chronic low back pain (Cochrane Review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001;2:CD003008.
  49. Munhoz RP, Hanajima R, Ashby P, et al. Acute effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on tremor. Mov Disord 2003;18(2):191-194.
  50. Murray S, Collins PD, James MA. An investigation ingo the 'carry over' effect of neurostimulation in the treatment of angina pectoris. Int J Clin Pract 2004;58(7):669-674.
  51. Naeser MA, Hahn KA, Lieberman BE, Branco KF. Carpal tunnel syndrome pain treated with low-level laser and microamperes transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation: a controlled study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;Jul, 83(7):978-988. Comment in: Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;Dec, 83(12):1806. Author reply, 1806-1807.
  52. Ng MM Leung MC, Poon DM. The effects of electro-acupuncture and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on patients with painful osteoarthritic knees: a randomized controlled trial with follow-up evaluation. J Altern Complement Med 2003;9(5):641-649.
  53. Ng SS, Hui-Chan CW. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation combined with task-related training improves lower limb functions in subjects with chronic stroke. Stroke 2007;Nov, 38(11):2953-2959. Epub 2007;Sep 27.
  54. Olyaei GR, Talebian S, Hadian MR, et al. The effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on sympathetic skin response. Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol 2004;44(1):23-28.
  55. Oncel M, Sencan S, Yildiz H, et al. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for pain management in patients with uncomplicated minor rib fractures. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2003;22(1):13-17.
  56. Osiri M, Welch V, V, Brosseau L, et al. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for knee osteoarthritis (Cochrane Review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000;4:CD002823.
  57. Pan PJ, Chou CL, Chiou HJ, et al. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy for chronic calcific tendinitis of the shoulders: a functional and sonographic study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2003;Jul, 84(7):988-993.
  58. Peters EJ, Lavery LA, Armstrong DG, et al. Electric stimulation as an adjunct to heal diabetic foot ulcers: a randomized clinical trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82(6):721-725.
  59. Poletto CJ, Van Doren CL. Elevating pain thresholds in humans using depolarizing prepulses. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2002;Oct, 49(10):1221-1224.
  60. Price CIM, Pandyan AD. Electrical stimulation for preventing and treating post-stroke shoulder pain (Cochrane Review). Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews 2001;4:CD001698.
  61. Proctor ML, Smith CA, Farquhar CM, et al. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and acupuncture for primary dysmenorrhoea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003;4:CD002123. Last updated 2003-02-28.
  62. Rakel B, Frantz R. Effectiveness of trancutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on postoperative pain with movement. J Pain 2003;4(8):455-464.
  63. Robb KA, Newham DJ, Williams JE. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation vs. transcutaneous spinal electroanalgesia for chronic pain associated with breast cancer treatments. J Pain Symptom Manage 2007;Apr, 33(4):410-419.
  64. Savk E, Savk O, Sendur F. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation offers partial relief in notalgia paresthetica patients with a relevant spinal pathology. J Dermatol 2007;May, 34(5):315-319.
  65. Smart R. A prospective randomized controlled study of VAX-D and TENS for the treatment of chronic low back pain. Neurol Res 2001;23(7):780-784.
  66. Sonde L, Kalimo H, Fernaeus SE, et al. Low TENS treatment on post-stroke paretic arm: a three-year follow-up. Clin Rehabil 2000;14(1):14-19.
  67. Soomro NA, Khadra MH, Robson W, et al. A crossover randomized trial of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and oxybutynin in patients with detrusorinstability. J Urol 2001;166(1):146-149.
  68. Svihra J, Kurca E, Luptak J, et al. Neuromodulative treatment of overactive bladder: noninvasive tibial nerve stimulation. Bratisl Lek Listy 2002;103(12):480-483.
  69. Tong KC, Lo SK, Cheing GL. Alternating frequencies of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation: does it produce greater analgesic effects on mechanical and thermal pain thresholds? Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2007;Oct, 88(10):1344-1349.
  70. Tsukayama H, Yamashita H, Amagai H, et al. Randomised controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of electroacupuncture and TENS for low back pain: a preliminary study for a pragmatic trial. Acupunct Med 2002;Dec, 20(4):175-180.
  71. Tugay N, Akbayrak T, Demirtürk F, et al. Effectiveness of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and interferential current in primary dysmenorrhea. Pain Med 2007;May-Jun, 8(4):295-300.
  72. Tunc M, Gunal H, Bilgili T, et al. The effect of TENS on epidural patient controlled analgesia with tramadol for postthoracotomy pain relief. Turk Anesteziyoloji Ve Reanimasyon 2003;30(7):315-321.
  73. van Balken MR, Vandoninck V, Messelink BJ, et al. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation as neuromodulative treatment of chronic pelvic pain. Eur Urol 2003;Feb, 43(2):158-163. Discussion, 163.
  74. van der Spank JT, Cambier DC, De Paepe HM, et al. Pain relief in labour by transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). Arch Gynecol Obstet 2000;264(3):131-136.
  75. van Dijk KR, Scherder EJ, Scheltens P, et al. Effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on non-pain related cognitive and behavioural functioning. Rev Neurosci 2003;13(3):257-270.
  76. Vandoninck V, Van Balken MR, Finazzi Agro E, et al. Posterior tibial nerve stimulation in the treatment of urge incontinence. Neurourol Urodyn 2003;22(1):17-23.
  77. Wong RK, Jones GW, Sagar SM, et al. A Phase I-II study in the use of acupuncture-like transcutaneous nerve stimulation in the treatment of radiation-induced xerostomia in head-and-neck cancer patients treated with radical radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2003;57(2):472-480.
  78. Xiao WB, Liu YL. Rectal hypersensitivity reduced by acupoint TENS in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome: a pilot study. Dig Dis Sci 2004;49(2):312-319.
  79. Yokoyama M, Sun X, Oku S, et al. Comparison of percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for long-term pain relief in patients with chronic low back pain. Anesth Analg 2004;98(6):1552-1556.
  80. Yuan CS, Attele AS, Dey L, et al. Transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation potentiates analgesic effect of morphine. J Clin Pharmacol 2002;Aug, 42(8):899-903.
  81. Zhang GJ, Shi ZY, Liu S, et al. Clinical observation on treatment of depression by electro-acupuncture combined with Paroxetine. Chin J Integr Med 2007;Sep, 13(3):228-230.